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1º BACHILLERATO

 1. INTRODUCTION

Virgin Millionaire

BNE: Why would billionaires want to do reality television? Why would Sir Richard Branson, one of Britain’s richest people want to produce shows on mainstream American TV? You can find the answers in “The Rebel Billionaire: Branson’s Quest for the Best”, a full-on, non-stop mixture of thrills, adventure and business. The series started last night with a 2-hour premiere on America’s Fox TV.

Branson is an enigmatic character. He is the 54-year-old founder of the Virgin Group, which has under its umbrella everything from cola, rail companies and airlines to condoms, CDs and space travel. He is also somewhat of an adventurer, attempting and succeeding in numerous daredevil challenges. In 1986 he crossed the Atlantic Ocean in the fastest ever recorded time. He also crossed the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in a hot-air balloon. He’s going to send his elderly father into space for his 90th birthday!

Branson combines his two passions of risk-loving adventurer and entrepreneur extraordinaire in his first TV show, in which sixteen young hopefuls embark on a physically and mentally challenging, globe-trotting competition. The carrot is $1,000,000 plus the presidency of the Virgin Group for six months, just the kind of prize any gung-ho twenty something would risk their high teeth for.

It is all nail-biting entertainment of the highest order. The challenges on the first show include a heart-stopping walk between two balloons 3,000 metres up, with a picnic on top of one balloon. Another challenge entails going over Africa’s Victoria Falls in a barrel. Branson eliminates two contestants each week. It is definitely not for the faint-hearted, for TV viewers and participants alike.

It seems like a tortuous way to pick a corporate boss. Branson’s rationale is that “having the courage to know when to say no and when to say yes, to calculate the downside, to decide when adventures are just too risky” is necessary to make it to the top. However, make no mistake – the show is a marketing tool for Richard Branson and his latest venture: launching Virgin Airways in the United States.

2. UNIT 1

THE INDEPENDENCE OF SCOTLAND

A BIT OF A LAUGH: THE SIMPSONS AND THE INDEPENDENCE OF SCOTLAND

 

 3. UNIT 1 VIEWPOINTS

Present Simple or Present Continuous?

Introduction

The simple present tense is often confused with the present continuous tense. This page will explain when to use each one.

1. The simple present tense

The simple present tense is used for two main types of action:

Habits Actions which happen regularly (for example, every day or every week)
States Things which do not often change (for example, opinions and conditions)

Some examples will help to make this clearer:

Type of action Examples Explanations
Habit Young-Mi goes to class every day. “Every day” is a habit.
It rains a lot in Vancouver. This means that it rains often.
Santos always talks about his family. “Always” means this is a habit.
Jerry spends Christmas with his parents. This implies that he spends Christmas with his parents every year.
State Bianca lives in Florida. This is a state, because it doesn’t change.
Jean-Paul has red hair. Someone’s hair colour doesn’t usually change.
Martin likes chocolate. When we like something, usually we will always like it.
Anna believes in God. Beliefs and opinions are states. They don’t often change.

2. The present continuous tense

The present continuous tense is used for two main types of action:

A temporary action happening now Something which is going on right now (but it will stop in the future)
A definite plan for the future Something we intend to do, usually in the near future

Here are some examples:

Type of action Examples Explanations
Temporary action happening right now John is winning the game. Right now, John is winning, but the game isn’t finished yet.
It’s raining outside. It’s raining right now (but it may stop soon).
Soraya’s working in the library. She’s working there right now.
Sihol is spending Christmas with his family. He’s spending Christmas with his family right now, this year. (Maybe next year he won’t.)
Definite plan for the future I’m playing soccer tomorrow. This plan is already arranged and definite.
Sarah’s leaving for San Francisco on Friday. She has probably already bought her ticket.
The Olympics are taking place here next year. This is already certain.
I’m having a party next week. All the plans have been made.

When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises.

http://a4esl.org/q/h/vm/sp_or_pc.html

http://www.eclecticenglish.com/grammar/PresentContinuous1I.html

STATIVE VERBS

Some English verbs, which we call state, non-continuous or stative verbs, aren’t used in continuous tenses (like the present continuous, or the future continuous). These verbs often describe states that last for some time. Here is a list of some common ones:

Stative (or State) Verb List

like know belong
love realise fit
hate suppose contain
want mean consist
need understand seem
prefer believe depend
agree remember matter
mind recognise see
own appear look (=seem)
sound taste smell
hear astonish deny
disagree please impress
satisfy promise surprise
doubt think (=have an opinion) feel (=have an opinion)
wish imagine concern
dislike be have
deserve involve include
lack measure (=have length etc) possess
owe weigh (=have weight)

A verb which isn’t stative is called a dynamic verb, and is usually an action.

Some verbs can be both stative and dynamic:

Be
be is usually a stative verb, but when it is used in the continuous it means ‘behaving’ or ‘acting’

  • you are stupid = it’s part of your personality
  • you are being stupid = only now, not usually
Think
  • think (stative) = have an opinion
    I think that coffee is great
  • think (dynamic) = consider, have in my head
    what are you thinking about? I’m thinking about my next holiday
Have
  • have (stative) = own
    I have a car
  • have (dynamic) = part of an expression
    I’m having a party / a picnic / a bath / a good time / a break
See
  • see (stative) = see with your eyes / understand
    I see what you mean
    I see her now, she’s just coming along the road
  • see (dynamic) = meet / have a relationship with
    I’ve been seeing my boyfriend for three years
    I’m seeing Robert tomorrow
Taste
  • taste (stative) = has a certain taste
    This soup tastes great
    The coffee tastes really bitter
  • taste (dynamic) = the action of tasting
    The chef is tasting the soup(‘taste’ is the same as other similar verbs such as ‘smell’)

EXERCISES

http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/stative-verbs-exercise.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p9M7FhSYcH4&p=74DE4B257C0F3D42&playnext=1&index=3

DESCRIPTION

 

  1. 1.                 DESCRIBE THIS PERSON. USE  these ADJECTIVES FROM the copy given

Honest, greedy, lazy, witty, outgoing, forgetful, gentle, impulsive, imaginative, ambitious, irresponsible, shy, warm, cheerful, round-faced, blue-eyed…

 

 4. UNIT 5. VIEWPOINTS

RELATIVE CLAUSES Level 2

relative pronoun use example
who subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? Level 2

Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms – who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows:

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

the apple which is lying on the table

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.

the apple (which) George lay on the table

Relative AdverbsLevel 3

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.

This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
→ This is the shop where I bought my bike.

relative adverb meaning use example
when in/on which refers to a time expression the day when we met him
where in/at which refers to a place the place where we met him
why for which refers to a reason the reason why we met him

Defining Relative ClausesLevel 2

Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with five girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause defines which of the five girls you mean.

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.

A seaman is someone who works on a ship.

Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)

The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.

Non-Defining Relative Clauses

Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean.

Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?

Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.

Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.

EXERCISES http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses/exercises?10 http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses/exercises?11 http://www.ego4u.com/en/read-on/countries/uk/tour/stonehenge#exercises http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses/exercises?08 http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses/exercises?04 http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses/exercises?07

Here you have several links to revise and study relative clauses

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses

http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/clause-phrase-and-sentence/verb-patterns/relative-clauses

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-relative-clauses.php

FOR AND AGAINST ESSAYS

It is one kind of argumentative essay which gives advantages and disadvantages of a topic. A good essay of this type should consist of:

  1. 1.       An introductory paragraph in which you state the topic. That means you talk generally about the topic without giving your opinion. Try to answer these  two questions: What are you going to discuss? and What are the two sides of the topic?.

You can begin:

–           Addressing directly to the reader: “if you take your time to think about….”

–          Using a rhetorical question: “Is it true that keeping traditions is good for a culture?”

–          Use a quotation:  “According to Ernest Hemingway “ there are only three sports: bullfighting, motor racing and mountaineering; all the rest are merely games”

  1. 2.       A main body in which the points for and against, along with the justification, appear in two different paragraphs.
  2. 3.       A conclusion in which you give your opinion or a balanced consideration of the topic.

 

IMPORTANT POINTS TO CONSIDER

ü  Plan your essay before you start writing it. Write down your ideas in two lists, one for advantages ( pros) and another one for disadvantages ( drawbacks/cons).

ü  Make sure you discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of the topic equally, WITHOUT STATING YOUR OPINION. Present your opinion, if you want in the conclusion, not in the other parts.

ü  Don´t include any new ideas in the conclusion.

ü  Write in formal style. Do not use short forms or abbreviations or strong language ( I firmly believe)

ü  Avoid  using  first person singular ( I ).

ü  Use a variety of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Avoid being too simple.

ü  Write well- developed paragraphs in which the points you present are supported with justification ( i.e examples,reasons..)

ü  The first sentence of each paragraph must summarize the content of the whole paragraph.

CONNECTORS. LINKING WORDS OR PHRASES.

ü  To introduce points: one major advantage/ disadvantage of…a further advantage,

ü  To list points: first of all, to start with, secondly, thirdly, finally..

ü  To add more points to the same topic: what is more, furthermore, in addition to this/that, besides, what is more…

ü  To make contrasting points: on the other hand, however, nevertheless, although, even though..

ü  To introduce examples: for example, for instance, like, such as..

ü  To conclude: to conclude, to sum up, all in all, to conclude, in conclusion…

ü  Presenting your opinion:in my opinion/ view, personally, from my point of view, I believe.

ANIMAL IDIOMS

Here you have some animal idioms. Write a sentence to show that you have understood  the meaning of each one.

1. As hungry as a bear– very hungry

2. As innocent as a lamb– having no guilt, naïve

4. As scared as a rabbit– very scared

5. As sick as a dog- very sick

6. As stubborn as a mule– very stubborn

7. One’s bark is worse than one’s bite– one’s words are worse than one’s actions:

8. Bark up the wrong tree– to choose the wrong course of action, to ask the wrong person (a Hunting dog may make a mistake when chasing an animal and bark up the wrong tree

9. The black sheep of the family– the worst or the most unpopular or disliked member of a family

10. Cat gets one`s tongue– one cannot speak because of shyness

11. A cat nap– a short sleep taken during the day

12.A copycat– someone who copies another person`s work etc.

13. Have a cow– to become very angry and upset about something: e.g

14. Let sleeping dogs lie– do not make trouble if you do not have to: e.g

15. Let the cat out of the bag– to tell something that is supposed to be a secret: e.g

16. Monkey business– unethical or illegal activity, mischief : e.g

17. When the cat’s away, the mice will play– when you are not watching someone they may get into trouble, when a person with authority is absent then those below him or her can do whatever they want

CONNECTORS. EXERCISES

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1792

http://www.xtec.cat/~ogodoy/sac/rephrasing/connectex1.htm

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=5348

UNIT 2

NARRATIVE TENSES

PAST SIMPLE, PAST PROGRESSIVE, PAST PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE.

THE PAST SIMPLE IS USED:

  • For a complete action that took place at a definite time in the past. The time is either mentioned or implied.
  • For habitual or repeated actions in the past.
  • For completed actions that took place one after the other in the past.

I bought this suit last week

She always came late to the office.

I arrived home late last night, had a glass of milk and went straight to bed.

  • TIME EXPRESSIONS: Yesterday, then, last night/week/month, ago etc

THE PAST PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

  • For an action that was in progress at a definite time in the past
  • For an action that was happening when another one interrupted it. The longer action is in the past progressive and the shorter one is in the past simple.
  • For two or more actions happening at the same time in the past.

They were watching the news at 8:45 last night.

She was sweeping the floor when she found a coin.

While I was doing the washing up, my mother was cooking.

  • TIME EXPRESSIONS: while, as, when.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE IS USED:

  • For a past action that was completed before another past action. We use the Past Perfect simple for the first action and the past simple for the second action.
  • For an action that was completed before a definite time in the past.

When we arrived at the airport, the plane had already taken off.

I had finished my homework by 6:00 p.m. yesterday.

  • TIME EXPRESSIONS: by+time, by the time, after, before, when.

THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

  • To emphasise the duration of an action that was happening before another one in the past.
  • For an action going on in the past and its results were visible later on in the past.

I had been waiting for hours when he finally came.

The firemen looked exhausted. They had been trying to put out the fire for six hours.

  • TIME EXPRESSIONS: When, for, since, after, before, how long etc..

When we use BEFORE or AFTER to describe the first two actions that happened in the past, we can use the past simple instead of the Past perfect simple.

The students had come/ come before the teacher arrived.

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs4.htm

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs11.htm

PAST SIMPLE- PAST CONTINUOUS – PAST PERFECT

1. Complete the sentences with the verbs below. Use the Past Simple, Past Perfect Simple or Past Continuous.

not be    eat    arrive    run    be    film    win    cross    play    manage    have    hope

1.   We …………………………..………… tennis when it started to rain, but we …………………………..………… to finish the game before the rain got too hard.

2.   I’m not hungry. I …………………………..………… an hour ago. I …………………………..………… eggs and bacon.

3.   As Sara …………………………..………… the road, a lorry nearly hit her. She’s lucky she
…………………………..………… hurt.

4.   They …………………………..………… already …………………………..………… four games, so
they …………………………..………… to win the one last Saturday as well. They were very disappointed when they lost.

5.   While the stuntwoman …………………………..………… through fire, the cameraman
…………………………..………… her.

6.   By the time Jon …………………………..………… at the club, most of his friends …………………………..………… there for two hours.

2.    Rewrite the sentences with the time expression in brackets. Use the Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple.

1.   When all my exams ended, my mother bought me a CD. (after)

My …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  .

2.   Linda talked on the phone and cooked at the same time. (while)

Linda ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  .

3.   We had started to watch the DVD before Ann arrived. (when)

We ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  .

4.   I didn’t know that Andrew went on holiday last Wednesday. (already)

I ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  .

3.   Arrange the words in the correct order to form sentences. Use the correct form of the verbs.

1.   doorbell / the / ring / watch / television / Gill / when / .

2.   while / I / last / answer / write / pen / the / in / the / exam / my / break / .

3.   ago / she / an / call / hour / ?

4.   by the time / arrive / close / we / the / already / shop / .

 

4. Choose the correct answer.

1.   I sent an SMS to ask David to go out for coffee but he made / had already made other plans.

2.   By the time the singers appeared on television, they had rehearsed / rehearsed for weeks.

3.   They had first met each other when they were / had been in different bands.

4.   The children didn’t want dessert after lunch but they ate / had eaten some ice cream later.

5.   When I heard Sue’s voice, I knew that something bad had happened / happened.

5.   Complete the passage with the verbs below. Use the Past Simple or Past Continuous.

wear    happen    enter    hold    stand    cry    say    run    hear    drop

You’ll never believe what 1. …………………………..………… to me a few minutes ago! I 2. …………………………..…………
in the queue in the bank when two men suddenly 3. …………………………..………… in. They started shouting, but it was hard to understand what they 4. …………………………..………… because they 5. …………………………..………… masks over their faces. But, as soon as we realised that the men 6. …………………………..………… guns, everyone immediately lay on the floor. I heard that someone near me 7. …………………………..………… very softly, but other than that, it was very quiet for a moment. Then we 8. …………………………..………… the robbers demand cash from a clerk. A moment later, there was a noise at the door, and I could tell that people 9. …………………………..………… the bank. It turned out to be the police. The robbers immediately 10. …………………………..………… their guns and were arrested.

 

PRESENT PERFECT-PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS- PAST SIMPLE

1. Answer the questions, using the time expressions below and the words in brackets.

since    never    for    yet    when    while    just

1.   How long have they lived here? (1999)

2.   How long has John known Diana? (four years)

3.   Did you buy those shoes here? (no; I was in Italy)

4.   Has their train arrived? (yes)

5.   When did you last see David? (waiting in a queue)

6.   Have you ever skydived? (no)

7.   Have you finished your work? (no)

 

2.   Write sentences in the Present Perfect Simple.

1.   feed / you / the / already / cat / ?

2.   eat / cake / I / never / delicious / have / such / !

3.   not / she / leave / yet / .

4.   that / why / not / you / ever / tell / anyone / story / ?

3.   Complete the sentences with the verbs below. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple.

not begin    require    show    not be    fly    be    think

1.   Our school …………………………..………… uniforms until 2001.

2.   Last year, my father ……………………………. to New York once a month on business.

3.   My brother ……………………………. studying English yet. He’ll start in September.

4.   ……………………. you ever ……………………………. about how you want to earn a living?

5.   How old ……………………………. you when your sister was born?

6.   I ……………………………. to the dentist for a year, but I made an appointment for next week.

7.   So far, they ……………………………. that advert on television five times tonight! I’m tired of watching it!

4.   Complete the dialogue with the correct verb below. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple.

tell    hear    begin    agree    find    be    not arrive    not be    talk

Ann:     Robin’s 15 minutes late! When you 1. ……………………………. with her last night,
2. ……………………………. you ……………………………. her when to meet us?

Emily:     Yes – we 3. ……………………………. to meet here at 8.45.

Ann:     4. ……………………………. you ……………………………. from her since last night?

Emily:     No. But I just realised that she 5. ……………………………. anywhere on time for a month. That’s when she 6. ……………………………. driving into town instead of taking the bus. Oh – hi, Robin! Where 7. ……………………………. you ……………………………. for the past 20 minutes?

Robin:     There 8. ……………………………. anywhere to park! But I finally 9. ……………………………. a place.

5.    Complete the sentences with the verbs below. Use the affirmative or negative form of the Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple.

know    rain    rehearse    forget    be

1.   We usually have very wet winters, but it …………………………..………… since late December.

2.   John …………………………..………… to close the back door yesterday. Luckily, the dog didn’t run away.

3.   Sue and David …………………………..………… each other for a year.

4.   Thanks for the invitation. I …………………………..………… to a party for months!

5.   They …………………………..………… together since their last performance.

6.   Rewrite the sentences in the Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple. Use the verbs below, and suitable time expressions. Do not change the meaning of the original sentence.

eat    have    stop    finish    lose

1.   I have got more homework to do.

2.   My fifth driving lesson is next week.

3.   Greg hasn’t played football for a year.

4.   Does Emily weigh less than she used to?

5.   I had breakfast, but I didn’t have time for lunch.

MIXED TENSES

1. I usually (go) to school by bus.2. Yesterday morning I (get) up at 6.30.3. We needed some money so we (sell) our car.4. ” she ever (be) to Spain?”5. “What Peter (do) now?”6. Please don’t make so much noise. I (study).7. Water (boil) at 100 degrees Celsius.

8. Carol often (learn) with her father.

9. Now Ron (phone) Jill again. It (be) the third time he (phone) her this evening.

10. It (rain) now. It (begin) raining two hours ago. So it (rain) for two hours.

11. you (hear) anything from Tom since Christmas?

12. ” it (rain)?” she always (ask) me.

13. ” you (go) out last night?”

14. New York (be) one of the largest cities of the world.

15. This house (cost) 35.000 pounds in 1980.

CHARLIE HEBDO

INTRODUCTION

On the morning of 7 January 2015, two masked gunmen armed with assault rifles and other weapons forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. They killed eleven people and injured eleven others during their attack. They then killed a French National Police officer shortly after. The gunmen identified themselves as belonging to Al-Qaeda’s branch in Yemen, which took responsibility for the attack.

On 11 January, about two million people, including more than 40 world leaders, met in Paris for a rally of national unity, and 3.7 million people joined demonstrations across France. The phrase Je suis Charlie (French for “I am Charlie”) was a common slogan of support at the rallies and in social media.

Read the following statements taken from the Internet and share your opinion about them with the class:

  1. All Muslims are been tarred with the same brush: now almost every Western person thinks we are terrorists!
  2. I think that no journalist or cartoonist should die over his or her job, but I think what Charlie Hebdo does is deeply offensive and I can’t understand all the people who went out to the street claiming “ I am Charlie”.
  3. We must be careful about the idea of conflating Islam with radicalism: it’s not about religious people, it is about a few lunatics.
  4. Charlie Hebdo also made covers laughing at Christ: why weren’t they taken so seriously??
  5. Muslims are being demonized now in the same way black people were in the past. The white, Christian population thinks they have the right to offend because they hold the power, buy we don’t have the right to feel offended.
  6. Given the scale of the ongoing anti-Muslim backlash all over the world, we should forget that the Muslim community are also victims of this tragedy.
  7. Charlie Hebdo massacre is an attempt to shut the mouths of those who are critical about Islam: it’s an attack on freedom of expression. Criticizing religions is not the same as being racist.
  8. If you have a look at the cover history of Charlie Hebdo, you will see that most of them mocked Muslims which proves this is a racist publication.

 

 

 UNIT 3

PRESENT PERFECT/SIMPLE PAST

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

  • For actions that started in the past and are still happening
  • For past actions whose results are connected to the present.
  • To announce news, changes or events that affect the present.
  • For past actions whose time is not stated, or for recently completed actions.
  • With today, this morning/ week etc.If these periods of time are not finished at the time of speaking.
  • With adjectives in the superlative degree or expressions like: the only, the first, second…
  • TIME EXPRESSIONS: since, just, yet, already, how long, ever, never etc..
  • To emphasize the duration of an action which started in the past and is still happening. The action may or may not be completed.
  • For actions that have been going on up to the recent past with results in the present.
  • To show anger, annoyance, irritation or demand an explanation for a very recent action.
  • TIME EXPRESSIONS: how long, for, since, all day/ morning.
  • To emphasize the duration of an action which started in the past and is still happening. The action may or may not be completed.
  • For actions that have been going on up to the recent past with results in the present.
  • To show anger, annoyance, irritation or demand an explanation for a very recent action.

TIME EXPRESSIONS: how long, for, since, all day/ morning.

DIFFERENCES

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

  • For permanent situations
  • To emphasize the result of an action
  • For actions that are already finished.
    • For temporary situations.
    • To emphasize the duration of an action.
    • For actions that may or may not be finished.
  • For temporary situations.
  • To emphasize the duration of an action.

For actions that may or may not be finished

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

PAST SIMPLE

  • For past events  that have a connection with the present.
  • For events that began in the past but are still happening in the present.
  • With today, this morning/week. If these periods of time are not finished at the time of speaking.
    • For completed past events which are not connected with the present. The time is definite.
    • For events that took place at a certain time in the past but are over at the time of speaking.
    • With today, this morning/week if the periods are finished.
  • For completed past events which are not connected with the present. The time is definite.
  • For events that took place at a certain time in the past but are over at the time of speaking.

With today, this morning/week if the periods are finished.

NOTE:

  • They have been to Italy ( they are back now)
  • They have gone to Italy ( they are still there)
  • FEEL, LEARN, LIVE, SLEEP, STUDY, TEACH, WAIT AND WORK can be used in the Present Perfect Simple or Progressive with no difference in meaning.

TIME EXPRESSIONS:

FOR: is used when we want to indicate the length of a period of time.

SINCE: is used when we want to indicate the starting point of a period of time. Negatives are not normally used with SINCE.

YET: is only used in negative and interrogative sentences and placed at the end of them.

ALREADY: Is used in interrogative and affirmative sentences. It is normally placed between the auxiliary and the main verb, but can also appear at the end of the sentence for emphasis.

STILL: Suggests that the action continues up to now. It is placed between the auxiliary and the main verb in affirmative and interrogative sentences, but before the auxiliary in negations. It is also used with other verb tenses.

JUST: is used when you want to refer to an action that has happened a short time ago. It is placed between the auxiliary and the main verb.

EVER: means “at any time” and it is normally used in questions: have you ever…?. NEVER is the negative “not ever”. It means the subject hasn’t had an experience before.

COLLOCATIONS

Collocation refers to the way in which some words regularly occur together. There is no grammatical reason for this so there are no rules to learn.

SET

Set is often cited as the English word with the most different meanings and, unsurprisingly, it’s got a number of collocations. You can set: alarm clocks, watches, thermostats, for example. You can set a date or a time and you can also set a price or a rate for something (as in The Central Bank is responsible for setting interest rates).

Set: conditions, guidelines, limits and criteria (as in Opposition parties have set conditions for peace negotiations to begin)

Set: an example or set a precedent (as in Her behaviour sets a very bad example or This ruling will set a legal precedent).

Set can be used with certain nouns to establish the way in which something is done, e.g. set a tone, a pattern, a fashion or a trend (Her opening speech set the tone for the whole conference).

set a table or set a record. In terms of the future, you can set yourself (or someone else) a goal, a challenge, an objective or a task. Teachers can set homework, set essays and set exams.

RAISE:

Raise /reiz/: raise your hand, raise a flag, raise a salary or raise your glass

In the sense of ‘create’, raise can collocate with a number of abstract nouns, for example raise doubts, raise fears, raise a question, raise hopes and raise expectations (as in ‘We don’t want to raise your hopes at this early stage’ or ‘Doubts have been raised about the viability of the project’).

If you raise your eyebrows, you show you are surprised at something. Raising your voice indicates that you are speaking in a loud voice, probably because you are angry. You can also raise the alarm if you want to draw people’s attention to a problem. You can raise children or raise a family. .

WIN-EARN-GAIN

The three of them relate to getting or achieving something.

Win: You can win a competition or a sporting event. For this achievement you might win a prize, a cup or a medal. You can also win a contract, win the right to do something, win support or approval.

Earn: Apart from earning money or earning a salary, you can also earn your living in order to pay for everything you need.

Gain: You can gain weight or speed. You can also gain an advantage as in “Some people try to gain an advantage by using their personal contacts). Other nouns used with gain are gain experience, gain time.

There is one word that collocates with all three verbs: RESPECT. You can win respect, gain respect or earn respect, all of which meaning getting respect out of your efforts or behavior.

 Unit 7: CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

EXERCISES ON CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-1/exercises

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-2/exercises?02

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-3/exercises?02

http://www.ego4u.com/en/read-on/countries/usa/tour/new-orleans

 

UNIT 8: PASSIVE VOICE

ACTIVITIES ON PASSIVE VOICE

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-passive.php

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htm

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive

OPINION ESSAYS

http://learningenglishisgreat-rosa.blogspot.com.es/2013/01/how-to-write-opinion-essay-como.html

TOPICS TO WRITE ABOUT

Master Chef Spain contestant is eliminated on the spot for his dish “Lion eats Shrimp”

Spain is on their 3rd edition of the popular cooking show Master Chef, and last night something happened that was completely unprecedented. The panel of judges reviewing the contestant’s dishes expulsed Alberto (a contestant) on the spot, without deliberating, for an apparent offense.

In high class cooking, plating is a very important part of the cooking process. As such, the message a plate conveys is as important as the flavor it contains. When the judges told Alberto in a previous episode that he had to be a lion in the kitchen, he used that comment as his inspiration for the dish during the elimination match.

He cooked a tomato and strawberry gazpacho, over which he placed a boiled potato with two shrimps surrounding it. The potato was supposed to represent a lion’s head, and had saffron whiskers. He wanted to portray the plate as a representation of what he was; a lion eating shrimp, in a humorous manner that he was sure would win over the judges and secure his spot on the show.

However, the judges were far from amused, even less so when they examined the plate and found the potato was severely undercooked. After fiercely criticizing him, they skipped over the regular order of judging and eliminated him on the spot for the insult to their intelligence.

 

What would you do if you were one of the judges of the contest? Would you have eliminated him? Why?

If you were the contestant would you report the jury to the authorities for having humiliated you in front of millions of viewers?

If you were the President of the National Television, would you stop this kind of programs?

 

FLIRTATIOUS REMARKS/COMPLIMENTS (PIROPOS)

It has become taboo for a man to compliment a female colleague’s appearance for fear of being called sexist. The reverse is also true: women fear complimenting men in case it is misjudged as a sexual advance.

Last April, Barack Obama was forced to issue an apology to his friend and colleague Kamala Harris after introducing her as brilliant, dedicated, tough and “by far the best looking attorney general (public prosecutor) in the country”. The argument that Obama was somehow snubbing (to insult (someone) deliberately) Harris by complimenting her looks is an odd one. She is someone he respects on a personal and professional level, so why shouldn’t he say a nice thing about her without facing accusations of sexism? Would the same thing have occurred if Harris had described Obama as suave ((esp of a man) displaying smoothness and sophistication in manner or attitude; urbane) and handsome?  The problem is that women have long suffered judgment on their appearances alone. We have become hypersensitive to being seen as sex objects. Modern men, in turn, have become paranoid about making us feel this way. Giving us a compliment, however harmless, is too much of a risk: they may end up insulting us or, worse, finding themselves brought before the HR( human resources) department for an awkward conversation.

If you were the Minister for Equality, would you forbid this kind of compliments? Would you consider flirtatious remarks as insults?

If you were a woman would you fight to stop these comments? Would you consider them a sign of discrimination, bad taste and machismo?

If you are a woman how do you feel if you are said this kind of remarks while walking along the street?

 

 

Former IMF boss Rodrigo Rato accused of concealing 27 million euro fortune

Rodrigo Rato accused of concealing funds through front firms in relative’s names

Rodrigo Rato, the former minister and IMF managing director who was briefly placed under arrest last Thursday, is reported to have amassed a personal fortune of at least €27 million (£19.5 million), including dozens of companies and a 44 per cent share of a luxury hotel in Berlin.

Mr Rato, who was economy minister in Spain’s Popular Party (PP) governments between 1996 and 2004 before a three-year stint (time period) as IMF chief, is being investigated on suspicion of concealing his wealth and tax evasion.

According to information leaked to the Spanish media by court sources, Mr Rato used a web of companies and over 70 bank accounts.

The systems were created to avoid paying tax and having funds embargoed as a result of his implication in separate criminal cases, related to his time as director at Bankia, the bank of which he was director for two years until it had to be nationalised. It was eventually bailed out in 2012, to the tune of €22 billion.

What would you do with these people who have being laundering money (to disguise the source of (illegal or secret funds or profits), as by sending through a foreign bank)?

Would you ask these people to give back the money they have stolen or would you just send them to prison?

 Rodrigo Rato was responsible for selling preferred stocks (preferentes) to retired, illiterate people. He is also involved in the “black” card credit (tarjetas black) scandal; he took advantage of the tax amnesty approved by the government in 2012. He was one of the defenders of all kinds of cuts to overcome the crisis in Spain. What would you do if you were one of the judges in this case?

How would you feel if you were one of the retired people who have been ripped off by the sale of preferred stocks? What would you do? (These people have invested all their life savings in preferred stocks and they were ripped off and now they are fighting to get the money back)

If you were part of the Government what would you do to prevent this kind of situations from happening again?

 

Germanwings Flight 9525

Germanwings Flight 9525 was a scheduled international passenger flight from Barcelona–El Prat Airport in Spain to Düsseldorf Airport in Germany, operated by Germanwings, a low-cost airline owned by Lufthansa.

On 24 March 2015, the aircraft, crashed 100 kilometres northwest of Nice, in the French Alps, after a constant descent that began one minute after the last routine contact with air traffic control and shortly after the aircraft had reached its assigned cruise altitude. All 144 passengers and six crew members were killed.

The co-pilot Andreas Lubitz allegedly crashed the plane deliberately as a result of his suicidal tendencies, for which he had previously been treated for. During the flight, he may have the captain out of the cockpit before initiating a descent that caused the plane to crash into a mountain.

In response to the incident and the circumstances of Lubitz’s involvement, aviation authorities in Canada, New Zealand, Germany, and Australia implemented new regulations that require two authorized personnel to be present in the cockpit at all times.

 

Some media have informed that the airline knew the copilot suffered from depression, if you had been one of the victims’ relatives, would you have sued Germanwings?

If there are two pilots in the cockpit, will air travel be safer?

If you were the manager of an airline what other measures would you take to improve safety?

If you were one of the victim´s relatives how would you feel knowing the real cause of the accident? Could you find any comfort knowing the trut

Lampedusa migrant boat capsizes

Hundreds of terrified migrants drowned on board a smuggler boat because they were locked in the ship’s hold when it capsized, a survivor revealed today.

More than 900 people – including 200 women and up to 50 children – are feared dead after the boat overturned in one of the worst maritime disasters since the end of World War Two.

The tragedy took place about 120 miles south of the Italian island of Lampedusa last Monday, April 20th. It is believed the vessel flipped when migrants rushed to one side of the overcrowded boat in a desperate bid to be rescued after sighting a merchant ship. This tragedy comes just days after another shipwreck in the area claimed 400 lives.

The grim death toll among those seeking refuge in Europe from Libya and elsewhere in this year alone is now more than 1,500.

 
Do you think that if immigration policies in European countries were less hostile, less people would risk their lives this way?

The UK argued that if they continue search and rescue operations that will encourage more illegal immigrants to attempt the treacherous crossing. Do you agree?

Some politicians think that if marine patrols control the sea traffic in order to arrest smugglers, this problem will be solved. Do you agree?

If you had been born in a poor country in Africa, would you have tried to reach Europe on a boat?

 

Boy armed with crossbow kills teacher in Barcelona

Thirteen-year-old kills teacher and wounds three others at secondary school in La Sagrera neighbourhood in north of the city.

The incident happened at 9.15am on Monday, 20th April at the Joan Fuster secondary school in La Sagrera, a district in the north of the city.

Witnesses said the boy arrived late for school and that, when a female teacher opened the door, he fired the crossbow at her face. The boy, who was dressed in camouflage gear, is then said to have fired at the teacher’s daughter, a student in the class. Hearing the cries, another teacher reportedly rushed to the scene and was trying to protect his colleague when the boy attacked him. He fell to the ground and died. The man was a supply teacher covering for a social sciences teacher’s absence and had been at the school for little more than a week.

Witnesses said the boy then went to another classroom where he threatened a second-year pupil with a knife. Shortly afterwards the gym teacher found him in the corridor where he was preparing a petrol bomb. “I hear voices; I want to stop all the voices,” the boy is reported to have said. The gym teacher, who was aware the boy had been having personal difficulties, tried to calm him until the police arrived.

The boy has been arrested but, as he is 13, he will not face criminal charges. In Spain, the age of criminal responsibility is 18, although in some cases younger people may be held criminally responsible for their actions.

According to some opinions if teachers had paid more attention to the boy’s problems, he wouldn’t have committed this crime. Do you agree?

Some people think that if TV series, movies and videogames weren’t so violent, society and especially young people wouldn’t be so aggressive. What do you think?

If you were the principal of a high school which activities would you promote to avoid violent behaviour?

If there were psychologists to help students with their problems, would situations like this be avoided? 

 

Government unaware of how much fuel has leaked from Canaries wreck

Two weeks after the start of a crisis involving the Oleg Naydenov Russian trawler – which caught fire and was towed off the coast of the Canary Islands, where it sank – and there is still no end in sight. The Spanish government does not know the amount of fuel oil that has so far seeped out from the tanks of the boat, which was carrying more than 1,400 tons in total, but which is now resting on the sea bed at a depth of 2,710 meters, 24 kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria.

The secretary of state for the Public Works Ministry, Julio Gómez Pomar, admitted on Sunday that fuel oil is still leaking from the fishing boat, adding that it is very hard to work out the amount that is already in the sea. Gómez explained that, since the beginning of the crisis, just 400 kilos of hydrocarbons have been recovered. The main job for the coastguard ships that are in the area so far is to disperse the slicks that are threatening to wash up on the coast of the islands. The alarm was raised on Saturday, when the Canarian government announced that an oil slick was located just a few miles of the south of Tenerife, only to later rectify that news. Since then, the secretary of state has explained that, until now, no fuel oil has been spotted in that area. News of that “false alarm” was also confirmed by the Canarian economy, tax and security chief, Javier González.

If you had been Paulino Rivero what would you have done to avoid this environmental catastrophe?

If you were a dolphin of those affected by the oil leak how would you react?

If you could volunteer and go to Gran Canaria to help cleaning up the coast would you go? why?

 

Spanish state broadcaster TVE accused of political bias

For more than 50 years millions of Spaniards have sat down each night to watch the Telediario, the flagship news programme of state broadcaster TVE. In recent months, however, the channel has not just been reporting the news — but making it as well.

TVE and its news programmes stand accused of favouring the government of Mariano Rajoy and his ruling Popular party, while sidelining opposition voices.

The channel’s own journalists have grown so concerned about political interference that they sent a delegation to Brussels this month to make a formal complaint to the European parliament. In a seven-page document, they describe TVE as a “propaganda instrument in the service of the government” — and chronicle a series of alleged journalistic lapses and manipulations.

With regional elections only a month away and a general election at the end of the year, Spain’s national broadcaster has turned into a crucial political battlefield.

If you were responsible for the national television what kind of programmes would you include? Why?

Now you are the President, If you want a national television but you don´t want to put public money from taxes on it, what will you do to get the money?

If you had any kind of power, would you make these public channels (TVG, telecanarias etc..) disappear? Would you invest the money on other things? Why? Where would you invest the  money you have saved?

 

 

 REVISION

 

RELATIVE CLAUSES

1. Complete the passage using a relative pronoun. Some pronouns may be used more than once, and there may be more than one correct answer in some places.

In early 2005, two filmmakers in the USA opened a website 1. …………………………..………… offers the public the opportunity to donate money to make films. Anyone 2. …………………………..………… donates will be given credit as
an “Executive Producer”. The filmmakers, 3. …………………………..………… website has only attracted a few thousand dollars in donations so far, can’t plan on making their first film until the day 4. …………………………..………… they’ve got
at least half a million dollars. In case they don’t achieve this goal, they will use the donations to make a short film to
show over the Internet, 5. …………………………..………… anyone will be able to watch it for free. But perhaps they shouldn’t give up hope yet: Jean Renoir, 6. …………………………..………… was a famous French film director in the
1930s, raised the money to make one of his films by selling tickets to it in advance.

2.   Rewrite the sentences using a relative clause and a relative pronoun. Make any necessary changes. Some sentences may have more than one possible answer.

1.   The Eiffel Tower is in Paris. I proposed to Sue there.

2.   I met Jane one week ago. It was my birthday then.

3.   John is dating Sarah. She is a vet.

4.   We had an English exam last week. I failed it.

5.   My favourite author is John Grisham. His books are usually about crime.

3. Rewrite the sentences with non-defining relative clauses. Use the information in brackets, a suitable relative pronoun and any necessary commas. Answers may vary.

1.   The lead singer was great! (I’ve forgotten his name)

2.   This book costs £15. (it’s 200 pages long)

3.   Ryan told me about this restaurant. (he often eats out)

4.   Elise is going to Venice. (her brother lives there)

USED TO + BARE INFINITIVE/ GET USED TO + GERUND( -ING) / TO BE USED TO + GERUND

1. Complete the passage with the correct form of used to, be used to or get used to.  

It’s hard to believe that my friend Robert – who 1. …………………………..………… mind eating steaks and hamburgers – is now a vegetarian. Until a year ago, he 2. …………………………..………… eat meat every day, but then he decided to try a vegetarian diet. It took him a few weeks to 3. …………………………..………… not eating meat, and during that time, he
4. …………………………..………… avoid going to certain restaurants. Now he 5. …………………………..………… cooking vegetarian meals at home. And, although it’s not always easy for him, he 6. …………………………..………… even slowly …………………………..………… going to restaurants with friends and eating pasta and salad while everyone else eats steak.

2.   Rewrite the sentences using the correct form of used to, be used to or get used to without changing the meaning. There may be more than one possible answer.

1.   Every day, Bill feels more comfortable living alone.

2.   Jane bought a new car a few weeks ago. Now she finds it easy to drive.

3.   Mary and Ellen played tennis every Saturday when they were 11 years old.

4.   Steve only recently began to like jazz.

GERUND AND INFINITIVE

GERUND

  1. When a verb is the SUBJECT of a sentence.

Living in a big city can be stressful.

  1. After prepositions.

Instead of studying, she went to visit a friend.

I’m very good at remembering names.

  1. After the following expressions: BE/GET USED TO, CAN’T STAND, CAN’T HELP, DON’T MIND, IT’S NO USE, IT’S NO GOOD, IT’S NOT WORTH.

It is a very bad movie: it’s not worth seeing it.

I’m a vegetarian because I can’t stand eating meat. I find it disgusting.

It’s no good spending all your money now: you should save some for summer.

  1. After some verbs such as ADMIT, AVOID, CONSIDER, CONTINUE, DENY, ENJOY, FANCY, FINISH, GIVE UP, HATE, INVOLVE, KEEP, LIKE, LOVE, MISS, POSTPONE, PRACTISE, PREFER, PUT OFF, RECOMMEND, RISK, SUGGEST.

Keep working this way: you’re doing a great job!

They all denied having seen her before.

The captain was not willing to risk taking his ship through the straits in such bad weather.

BARE  INFINITIVE (without  TO)

  1. After modal verbs.

You should ask them their opinion.

  1. After special verbs such as LET, MAKE, HELP; after verbs of perception such as SEE, HEAR or FEEL and after expressions such as WOULD RATHER( = would prefer), HAD BETTER (= should).

They heard the thief crash through the door.

He made me do it.

I’d rather stay at home and sleep this weekend. I’d rather not go out tonight. I’m exhausted.

He’d better study more if he wants to pass the exam.

FULL INFINITIVE (with TO)

  1. To express a reason or purpose:

He is saving money to buy a new car.

  1. After some verbs such as AFFORD, AGREE, APPEAR, ARRANGE, CHOOSE, CLAIM, DECIDE, DESERVE, EXPECT, FAIL, HOPE, INTEND, LEARN, MANAGE, OFFER, PLAN, PRETEND, PROMISE, REFUSE, SEEM, TEND, THREATEN, WANT, WISH, WOULD LIKE/LOVE/HATE.

 

We can’t afford to take a long holiday.

Army officers had threatened to destroy the town.

  1. After some adjectives and adverbs such as EASY, DISAPPOINTED, GLAD HAPPY, PLEASED, RELIEVED, SAD, SURPRISED, etc.

We are all relieved to be back home.

My flat is easy to find.

  1. Some verbs follow the structure VERB + object + TO. Some of them are: ADVISE, INVITE, TELL, WARN, TEACH, PERSUADE, REMIND, FORCE, ENCOURAGE, EXPECT, ALLOW, CONVINCE, BEG.

My husband persuaded me to come.

He was forced to resign.

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH THE SAME MEANING

BEGIN, BOTHER, CONTINUE, FORBID, INTEND, PROPOSE, START.

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH DIFFERENT MEANING

–         REMEMBER, FORGET, REGRET: Cuando van seguidos de gerundio, la acción expresada por este es anterior a la de recordar, olvidar o lamentar. Cuando van seguidos de infinitivo, la acción que expresa el infinitivo va a ser posterior al hecho de recordar, olvidar o lamentar.

Remember to be careful when you cross the road.

I remember riding my small bike when I was a child.

Don’t forget to give me the money.

Have you forgotten giving me the money? We were outside your house when you gave me the money back.

I regret to say that I won’t be able to attend the meeting.

I regret saying that he was an idiot.

-TRY: Seguido de gerundio significa “hacer un experimento, hacer algo a ver qué pasa” y seguido de infinitivo significa “hacer un esfuerzo”.

I tried using an anti-dandruff shampoo but it didn’t work. I tried to phone you several times but I couldn’t get through.

-STOP: Seguido de gerundio significa “cesar una actividad definitivamente” y seguido de infinitivo significa “parar de hacer una cosa para hacer otra”.

I stopped working last year to have a baby.                                                                   

  After I had been working for three hours, I stopped to have lunch.

( TEORÍA ELABORADA POR LARA) .
http://www.mansioningles.com/gram57_ej2.htm

 

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